Define industrial psychology and explain its nature, scope, development over time, and overall importance.
Industrial psychology (often expanded to "industrial and organizational psychology") is the application of psychological science to the behavior of human beings in workplaces and other complex institutions. Like most psychology, it overlaps with cognitive science and neuroscience; because it involves the behavior of institutions it also overlaps with sociology, economics, and political science.
Industrial psychology emerged in the 20th century as a response to the Industrial Revolution; initially its goals were primarily focused on improving worker efficiency and reducing turnover.
Over time, industrial psychology expanded to encompass a wider range of questions involved in work and organization, and found applications outside private sector business in government agencies, the military, and nonprofit organizations.
It is because of industrial psychology that we have concepts like "ergonomics", "human factors", "human capital", and "human resources". Industrial psychology has been used to promote both more efficient production and safer, more pleasant work environments. It has taught us that happier workers are usually more efficient workers, which makes improvements in workplace safety and comfort a win-win for both workers and employers.