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Biotechnology is applied biology which uses organisms and their activities in order to make medicines, improve plants and animals, and make other products that can improve people's lives. Using modern DNA technology, genetic engineering is done to modify an organism's DNA. Since 1973, when the first bacteria was genetically modified, to the present time, organisms have been modified to produce needed drugs like insulin, or to produce foods with particular traits that are desired. By inserting new genetic material from one organism, into a host organism, the genetically modified host can now manufacture the protein or gene product, from the gene that was spliced into its DNA. This organism is called a transgenic organism. For example, the protein antithrombin is secreted in the milk of genetically engineered goats and was approved for sale by the FDA. Genetically engineered drugs and foods are generally cheaper to produce using biotechnology methods.
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