Describe the process and a detailed explanation of equilibrium.

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Equilibrium, in scientific terms, describes one way that a system behaves. It doesn't refer to any system in particular, and so a more detailed phrasing of this question might be "using an example, explain how a system can demonstrate the characteristics of equilibrium".

Equilibrium basically refers to things being equally...

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Equilibrium, in scientific terms, describes one way that a system behaves. It doesn't refer to any system in particular, and so a more detailed phrasing of this question might be "using an example, explain how a system can demonstrate the characteristics of equilibrium".

Equilibrium basically refers to things being equally distributed; they are averaged or evened-out. The problem with this is that it can refer to a variety of different things that are being averaged, such as heat, chemical reaction rates, or concentrations of substances. For example, if we take a sealed room and burn a firelog in it, the heat in the air will probably reach equilibrium before the concentration of ash and smoke do. In terms of chemical reactions the combustion is a one-way reaction that cannot reach equilibrium, because wood cannot be formed out of carbon dioxide and air; this only occurs in the presence of a photosynthetic system. However, all systems are constantly in motion, so it's better to say that equilibrium is all about rates of change being equal than about a system reaching a certain balanced point and then stopping.

In comparison, consider two rooms connected to each other, with 10 people in one room and none in the other. We might be tempted to put 5 people in each room and call that equilibrium, but in fact it's better to say that there are 5 in each room and a 1:1 exchange rate; you can get up from your room and go to the other one, but someone in that room has to swap places with you. This might seem a bit silly in human terms, but it's a necessary specification when talking about atoms because we can't actually stop the atoms from moving around unless we freeze them, and being frozen would prevent the interactions necessary to achieve equilibrium in the first place.

The laws of thermodynamics, and the conditions of the system being evaluated, determine most of the conditions of equilibrium. For example, if we take an "open" system, such as the Earth itself, we should not expect to see equilibrium because there is a constant influx of "new" energy from the sun. On the other hand, in a closed system (which philosophically is impossible to achieve while simultaneously observing it) equilibrium is possible because the available energy will be randomly distributed throughout the system until all areas of high or low concentration are averaged out.

Equilibrium is also important in the more macroscopic sense of biological systems; for example, the human body is constantly experiencing cell death. If the body did not replace these cells at the same rate as they die, it would essentially wither into nothing. On the other hand, if cell creation exceeds cell death, then the body should grow.

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