What is the significance of Ho Chi Mihn's references to Tehran and San Francisco?
Declaration of Independence for the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, September 2, 1945, in Ho Chi Minh, Selected Works (Hanoi, 1960–1962)
In the end, much of what Ho Chi Minh attempts to do in the declaration is to ensure that the wave of freedom that began to surge in colonies and throughout the world with the fall of the Axis powers spilled over into Vietnam, as well. His fundamental argument is that if the West coalesced into defeat of the forces that sought to limit human freedom, then the same can be made for European powers that controlled colonies in other parts of the world. Citing specific locations where the world was made safe for freedom is a part of this larger design, just as sourcing French and American historical documents that speak and articulate the need for freedom in a country's citizens. In using the Western documents of freedom against them, Ho Chi Minh is essentially forcing a type of standoff. Either the Western powers are going to live and abide by their words and historical traditions of freedom or they have to concede that these nations are motivated by something else other than personal and human freedom (Economics, world control, power.) In bringing this issue to the forefront with the Western powers, Ho Chi Minh is forcing the issue of independence, proving that for Western nations, obtaining and securing freedom can be seen as two different elements. From a domestic standpoint, he is also seeking to broaden support for his agenda of Vietnamese freedom. In the same way of the French and the Colonial Americans, Ho Chi Minh is seeking to make the political concept of freedom as something more of a human rights issue that can be easily accepted by his own citizens as well as challenging the power of the West.
In the Teheran Conference of 1943, the Allied leaders (mostly Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin) agreed to set up an organization of countries after the war. This was what would become the United Nations. It was actually set up during meetings in San Francisco in 1945.
One of the points of the UN was to have all nations be represented in this sort of world government. All countries were supposed to be equal in the UN. This is what Ho is referring to when he talks about the idea of equality of nations having been set up in the Teheran and San Francisco meetings.