Please help me with these questions. 1- Make a distinction between the literary style in Arabic and in English. 2 - Make a distinction between grammatical meaning and lexical meaning, in detail...

Please help me with these questions.

1- Make a distinction between the literary style in Arabic and in English.

2 - Make a distinction between grammatical meaning and lexical meaning, in detail and with examples.

Please help me. I searched website but am not finding anything.

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Karen P.L. Hardison | College Teacher | eNotes Employee

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Distinction Between Literary Styles in Arabic and English

One important distinction between literary styles in Arabic and English is that the Muslim Qur'an represents its own unique literary style. Consequently in Arabic the literary styles are poetry, prose and Qur'an. In contrast, in English the Christian Bible was translated in the 1600s, under England's King James II,  from the Latin Vulgate Bible. Consequently in English the literary styles are poetry and prose.

This new form of speech, the Qur'an, became the sole source of the new civilisation's political, philosophical, and spiritual outlook. (Hamza Andreas Tzortzis, "The Literary Form of the Qur'an")

Another distinction between literary styles in Arabic and English is that in English there are multiple styles and forms of poetry, while in Arabic there are sixteen forms of poetry based on differing rhythmic metrical patterns. Examples of these sixteen metrical patterns are at-Tawîl and al-Bassit. Diagrams from Tzortzis' article "The Literary Form of the Qur'an" illustrate the rhythmic differences between these two metrical patterns.

Tawil
^ — — | ^ — — | ^ — — | ^ — — |
^ — — | ^ — — | ^ — — | ^ — — |

Bassit
— — ^ — | — ^ — | — — ^ — | — ^ — |
— — ^ — | — ^ — | — — ^ — | — ^ — |

Another distinction between Arabic and English poetry is that poetry in Arabic must rhyme, and rhyme is structured through matching end-letters in each line. The line-end letters form the rhyme in Arabic poetic style whereas words or word syllables located (most often) mid-line or line-end form rhyme in English poetry.

Another distinction between literary styles in Arabic and English is that there are two kinds of prose forms in Arabic, Saj and Mursal, while in English there are multiple prose forms in the categories of dramatic prose, nonfiction prose and fiction prose.

Grammatical Meaning and Lexical Meaning

The distinction between grammatical meaning and lexical meaning is that words carrying grammatical meaning are words that create grammatical structure, while words carrying lexical meaning are words that create content meaning.

Using English for examples, words carrying grammatical meaning and creating grammatical structure are from "closed" word classes, like prepositions and determiners. Closed word classes are classes to which no new words are added. Prepositions are words that structure relationships between syntactical parts in a sentence. Examples of prepositions that carry grammatical meaning are in, out, up, through. Determiners are words that introduce or modify nouns in a sentence. Examples of determiners that carry grammatical meaning are the articles a, an, the, the demonstratives this, that, those, and the quantifiers few, many, none, each.   

Words carrying lexical meaning and creating content meaning are from "open" word classes, like nouns and verbs. Open word classes are classes to which new words are may be and are continually added. Nouns are words that indicate subject and object thus are integral to the content of sentence meaning. Verbs are words that indicate the being or action in a sentence thus are integral to the content of sentence meaning. The open word classes of adjectives and adverbs add information to verbs and nouns thus are integral to creating and refining the content of sentence meaning. Examples of nouns in English are apple, rendezvous, love, while examples of verbs are to hunger, to run, to accelerate.

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