"Culture clash" is the most important theme in A Passage to India. What are the other themes in the novel?

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In A Passage to India, E. M. Forster presents in fictional form the consequences of the racial and class imbalances of the colonial system. The gendered and sexual dimensions of the colonial hierarchy are another important theme. The relative meaning of “justice” is also a central theme: although Dr. Aziz occupies a distinguished professional position, “justice” means something entirely different for him because he is Indian rather than British.

Aziz is presented as being highly aware of the unequal treatment he receives in British colonial society. The situation in which he is alone with Adela Quested arises because of her misinformed curiosity about India as well as his desire to inform a British visitor about his country’s fine cultural achievements. Although she is technically Mrs. Moore’s employee, Adela's status as a white British woman is higher than his as a non-white Indian physician.

The irony of what constitutes justice is shown by the trial. Even though Adela recants, the fact that Forster shows it as a case that could go to trial is significant. The colonial and racial disparity made it likely that the colonial powers would believe her accusation of inappropriate sexual conduct. Despite the flimsiness of her explanation that she was confused by the echo in the caves, her conduct affects only her engagement. In this regard, the emotional reaction of a woman is regarded as sufficient for making a damaging accusation.

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This novel also deals with such themes as friendship, public and private life, and ambiguity ("mystery" and "muddle"). Aziz and his friends discuss whether it possible to be friends with an Englishman; Mahmoud Ali argues it is not. This conversation relates to the clash between two cultures, but it ultimately prepares the reader for the relationship between Aziz and various British colonials such as Fielding, Miss Quested, and Mrs. Moore. Within the Indian culture as well you can examine the friendships between Aziz and his fellow Indians, Hamidullah, Mahmoud Ali, and the Nawab Bahadur. The puzzling events in the Marabar Caves contribute to the ambiguity in the novel although this theme is not limited to the central part of the book. See the link below for further explanation of themes.

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