Belinda's toilet scene occurs at the end of canto 1, running from lines 121 to 148 and starting with
And now, unveiled, the Toilet stands displayed,
Each Silver vase in mystic Order laid
and ending at:
And Betty's prais'd for Labours not her own.
The Rape of the Lock is a mock-epic, parodying the Iliad in order to make fun of a real feud that erupted in eighteenth-century England over Lord Petrie taking a lock of Arabella Fermor's hair. The poem not only mocks the quarrel as ridiculous, it mocks the eighteenth-century upper classes in general as weak and effete in comparison to the strength and heroism of the ancient Greeks.
In this passage, Belinda awakens and is made beautiful for her day. With attention to Belinda's "beauty" as putting on "all its Arms," the passage draws a direct parallel with the Iliad's warriors, such Achilles or Patroclus, arming themselves for battle. However, here, hair styling replaces armor and "pins" substitute for swords. In inflating such fluffery as "Puffs, Powders, Patches, Bibles, Billet-doux" to the level of a warrior's armor, the poem means to show how ridiculously inflated Belinda's petty life and concerns are. Also, while the soldiers in the Iliad would seriously attend to religious rites before battle and could rely on the gods being close at hand, Belinda's Bible is nothing more than another frivolous prop.
But while Pope wants to heap ridicule on Arabella for her vanity and effete life of dressing up and playing cards, a modern critic is likely to have more sympathy with her. As Mary Wollstonecraft would point out some years later in her Vindication of the Rights of Women, women who are inadequately educated and taught to value their looks above all else can hardly be blamed for having a narrow view of the world and paying close attention to their toilet.
Further, modern society takes seriously violations of woman's bodily space. The taking of hair without her permission—hair we see so carefully prepared here, showing that it matters to her—is a symbol of larger male entitlement to a woman's body that opens the door to other violations. We can see, too, in this scene Pope using the woman as "other" to denigrate female culture and exalt male culture (the years of bloodshed, violence, and suffering of the Iliad) as superior to domestic concerns. It is not surprising that we might push back on these misogynist constructions of gender and on the implicit assertion of male violence as superior to female aesthetic concerns.