The human reproductive system involves two specific hormones that are necessary for reproduction and contraceptive medication function. The two hormones that affect the reproductive system in women are estrogen and progesterone and both are steroids.
Estrogen is the hormone responsible for the changes in a female that turn her in to a woman. These changes include:
· Breast development
· pelvic broadening
· further development of the uterus
· axillary hair
· increased fat tissue
Progesterone is also responsible for specific changes and interacts in combination and separately from estrogen.
· connects to proteins
· targets cells that are gene related
· transcribes information
By controlling the levels of the two hormones in the female system birth control can be achieved. Many of the hormones in birth control are synthetically produced. To prevent the routine cycle that would produce off spring, progesterone is inhibited in the female system which prevents the hormone levels to be at function level for reproduction.
Actually, it is both estrogen and progesterone that used for contraceptives.
Estrogen is the hormone responsible for the healthy development of your female sexual characteristics such as your breasts, vagina, your menstrual cycle, body shape, and hair growth under the arms and around the pubic region. It also regulates the release of the ovarian eggs and works with progesterone to stop the ovulation cycle during when you get pregnant. Progesterone, on the other hand is the other hormone that regulates your menstruation. It supports pregnancy and tempers the highly stimulatory effects of estrogen.
It was discovered relatively long ago (1930's) that injections of progesterone were effective as a contraceptive in preventing pregnancies. The synthesis of similar but slightly different steroids as mimics to the natural steroids led to the development of the "pill".
The "pill" is an oral contraceptive containing synthetic derivatives of the female sex hormones, progesterone and estrogen. These synthetic hormones prevent ovulation and thus prevent pregnancy. The two synthetic hormones in the "pill" deceive the body into thinking it is pregnant. A high level of progesterone is maintained which inhibits secretions of FSH and LH. The result is that no new egg follicles are developed and no ovulation occurs.
Contraceptives are some Hormonal preparations that make a concentration, cycling, of female specific sex hormones, similar to that normally made by the endocrine function of the ovary (mainly, in the absence of administration of Contraceptives, the ovary is largely responsible with female sex hormone secretion, also it's task being the process of ovulation = removal of female sex cell, capable of being fertilized by sperm).
The contribution of exogenous (outside) sex hormones, hormone secretion function of the ovary is no longer found as being useful, resulting the rest of the ovary, which involves inhibiting ovulation and thus the contraception being realized (oocyte is not eliminated , not fecundation occurs so there is no question of pregnancy).
About 10 years ago it was discovered that the birds produce a hormone which has results in suppression of reproduction.
This hormone, known as gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH), has the effect of blocking the hormones that prepare the body for procreation.But this hormone has not only the blocking effect of reproductive hormones, but it can also function as blocking the growth of cancer cells. The current recommended therapy for treating types of cancer that reproductive hormones are responsible, are increased amounts of gonadotropin releasing hormones, this fact creating side-effects.
The effect of reproductive's inhibition which this hormone shows it, it is done at different levels on the reproductive axis (receptors found in hypothalamus and pituitary) :
-GnIH can inhibit the release of GnRH from the hypothalamus;
-GnIH could have an influence on the gonads;
-GnIH could have an influence on pituitary's receptors.