They are the bond formed between two elements when they shared their electrons to attain the stable state. Like H2, Cl2
polar covalent bonds: it is the bond formed between a non-metals by sharing of electron. The elements which have difference in elecronegativity will have polar covalent bond like HCl.
here Cl is more electronegative than H, so the shared electron cloud is attracted by Cl, which gives Cl a partial negative charge(d-) and H a partial positive charge(d+).
This is the bond formed between metal and a non-metals. there a metal lose electron and a non-metal gains this electron. then the two ions are held together by electrostatic force. eg: NaCl
Na====> Na(+) + e [Na loses one electron]
Cl + e =====> Cl(-) [Cl took the electron]
Na+ Cl ===> NaCl
the sharing between the two electrons is termed as covalent bond which does not involve any addition or subtraction reaction it includes substitution reaction..whereas the polar covalent bond is defined as the electron pairing in an atom...
here is a simple modified answer:
- Non-metal atoms are bonded to each other by covalent bonds.
- A covalent bond is a share pair of electrons.
- Covalent substances can have either:
- A giant covalent structure
- A simple molecular structure
- When metals react with non-metal they form Ionic compounds.
- Metal atoms give electrons to non-metal atoms.
- This makes positive metals ions and negative non=- metal ions.
- The oppositely charged ions are attracted to each other by strong electrostatic forces which is known as ionic bonding.