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u = sin(v)
cos(v) = sqrt(1-(sin(v))^2) = sqrt(1-u^2)
But v = arcsin(u),
therefore cos(arcsin(u)) = sqrt(1-u^2).
Next replace u with (x-h)/r to get:
cos(arcsin((x-h)/r)) = sqrt(1-(x-h)^2/r^2).
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