I have this problem in one of my classes right now. A girl in that class has a very short fuse and becomes extremely angry over the smallest perceived insult; I say "perceived" because some of the things that she gets angry about are really trivial. She slapped a student and chased him out of the room because the paper wad he was throwing at the waste basket hit her instead. (And, no, he did not intend to hit her; I witnessed the incident). I reported her to our assistant principal, who had a conference with her father.
One other thing I have done is refer her to the STARS counselor. STARS, which stands for Students Taking a Right Stand, provides counselors who meet once a week with students who have been referred to them for anger management, drug problems, or other issues.
I've seen no improvement in her behavior yet, but I'm hopeful.