Present several conclusions drawn from your findings and/or observations about the effectiveness of existing programs in your locale, and include a projection of how those approaches might work in the future, as inevitable societal changes occur.
One program of importance in my area is The Penelope House. It provides temporary safety and security for battered women and their children. It's in a secret location from the general public. They do a great job at protecting the identity of the women and children who are in their residence and a good job at helping the women find jobs, childcare, and move on with their lives.
Programs that result from grassroots efforts, or are built on, or partnered with already existing institutions like churches, schools, and community centers have best chance of being successful. But they are exactly the types of programs that have the toughest time raising funds. So it seems to me that you would need not just to study societal changes, but economic changes as well. Not only do these changes often create a greater need for the types of programs you seem to be interested in, but they also create a more hostile political environment toward funding them.
While using research is important, one must remember that every area is different. Some things which have worked in one area may not work in another. Communities which have strong activities for youth will have a better chance of creating and maintaining programs. Other areas, limited on their resources, normally have a harder time instilling and maintaining programs.
It is correct to say that this core of the answer here is researching what programs exist in your are or some other locale of interest to you, then furthering your research by attaining statistics on how well they do or do not work,this would include remedial effectiveness as well as preventive effectiveness. I suspect, with no evidence to back this up, that existing programs have only remedial effectiveness in correcting to some extent problems that have already occurred.
I would want to agree with #4 in his suggestion of comparing similar programs to other areas of the country, but at the same time I would suggest that you would benefit from actually looking wider as well, and researching into the way that similar programs operate all over the world and seeing what lessons can be learnt from studying such programs in vastly different contexts.
It might be helpful to discover how similar programs have actually worked (or not worked) in other areas of the country, especially areas similar in demographics to your own. The best predictor of how programs are likely to work in the future would seem to be how they have worked in the past, especially in places comparable to your own.
Your question is somewhat ambiguous as to what programs you are refering to. I'm assuming you mean programs to help the poor, needy, and homeless. Or maybe you're talking about community outreach programs to keep the youth busy and engaged and out of trouble. You could even be talking about drug or alcohol rehabilitation programs. All are good programs wherever you are.
Each area of the country is different and has its own set of problems and possible solutions for those problems. I live near Salt Lake City, Utah, and we don't have the magnitude of problems other urban areas of the country have. But problems do exist and we have programs set up to help. We have community kitchens, community gyms and recreation centers, homeless shelters, orphanages, centers for battered women, Junior Achievement, Boys & Girls Clubs, and many others that I can't think of or aren't aware of at this time.
So, you would have to take whichever sector of the country you're in, access its particular needs, and come up with whatever you think will help alleviate the problems in your area. For programs already in place, you could maybe do a study on them and come up with some statistics that show their current effectiveness and/or ways to improve them.
While I cannot offer specifics since I do not know what area you live in, here are a few ideas of how to proceed. You might start with creating a list of the programs you already know about. If you do not have enough on your list, search the area for other programs that you might be less familiar with. Think about how these programs work and whether or not they are working as well as they could. Make a list of things you think might work better. Then, think about how these organizations will need to change in order to keep up with the changes in society. Think about what types of changes might occur as laws and technology change. How would these changes effect the current organizations in your area?