In comparing Achilles and Aeneas as a hero, explain the difference and similarities of their motivations.

Achilles is motivated by an individual virtue and a personal desire for glory, while Aeneas is motivated by a larger mission to found Rome.

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The difference in cultural values between Homer's Greece and Virgil's Rome can be evaluated through a study of Achilles and Aeneas. Both are sons of goddesses, both are involved in the great Trojan War—though somewhat tangentially motivated by its initial cause—and both are ultimately defined by this war.

Achilles has a choice regarding whether to participate, and he goes into battle knowing that he is trading long life for glory, which is not an insignificant value in ancient Greek culture. If the Greeks' great dictum is to "know thyself" and if happiness is based on the concept of human flourishing (a quality of personal development through individual virtue or integrity), Achilles's desire for glory should not be seen as selfish or arrogant. His epithet is "like to the gods," but his true greatness eventually shows itself in his superior humanity. He seeks to be the best participant in the type of action on which the ancient Greek might prove himself, and ultimately he demonstrates his superiority in battle, in friendship, and—perhaps most importantly—in acknowledging the human dignity of his enemy, Priam. The late episode in which Achilles meets with Priam and returns Hector's body to him shows the measure of Achilles's humanity, which ultimately overtakes his measure as a great warrior.

Aeneas, by contrast, begins his epic journey by assuming the burden of carrying the legacy of Troy to a new nation, Rome. His epithet is "pious Aeneas," and the classic image of him shows him carrying his father on his back, guiding his son by the hand, and carrying the household gods. This idea of being faithful to one's father, to one's own role as a father, and to one's fatherland defines Aeneas's virtue. He abandons much of his individuality, his personal desire to join with Dido, and his human passions to serve his mission to found Rome. The Roman values of duty to country or ruler, perseverance, and self-denial mark Aeneas's growth in the epic. Virgil seeks to draw parallels between his epic and Homer's, but in most instances, we see that Virgil is fully on the side of the larger Roman enterprise than he is on the side of the individual as Homer is.

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Both men are great warriors, but with completely different motives and characteristics. Aeneas has been charged with a divine mission: to found the city of Rome. He must therefore be prepared to undergo a dangerous, arduous journey that will test his physical and mental strength to the absolute limit. But Aeneas is only human, and, like any human, has myriad foibles and character flaws. He falls hopelessly in love with Dido, queen of Carthage. This temporarily diverts him from his mission. However, after a swift intervention from the gods, he comes to his senses and continues with his journey. Aeneas loves Dido, but as a true progenitor of the Roman warrior male, he must do his duty no matter what.

Achilles, on the other hand, is only half human,...

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and it shows. There's something godlike about him; he's in a class apart from mere mortals. He's an incredibly brave warrior, the best of the Achaeans, but his bravery borders at times on recklessness, without heed for the consequences.

Whereas Aeneas is motivated by a desire to bring glory to future generations of Romans, Achilles is always looking out for number one. He has no qualms whatsoever about sulking in his tent like a grounded teenager after King Agamemnon requisitions his sex slave. No matter much Agamemnon tries to appease him, no matter how many of his comrades are slaughtered in battle, Achilles simply will not budge. It's only when his close friend Patroclus is slain in battle by Hector that he returns to the fray. Even then, he will only fight to heal his own injured pride and to restore the honor of his name. 

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Achilles, the son of mortal Peleus and the goddess Thetis, is the focal point of Homer's Iliad. The name of Aeneas, the son of mortal Anchises and the goddess Venus, can be found in the title of Virgil's epic poem, the Aeneid. Although Virgil was influenced heavily by Homer, Virgil gives his hero different motivations.

Achilles is motivated by individual glory. Prophecy has told him that he can die young and glorious at Troy, or live to a ripe old age at home in Greece.

Aeneas is motivated by a national glory that awaits for the Roman race that he will help to found. After surviving the Trojan War, Aeneas sets out in search of a new homeland, a homeland that various prophecies have told him will be in Italy. Establishing that new home is the focus of most of what Aeneas does.

Achilles, in contrast, does not have to establish a new homeland or reclaim a homeland that has been lost. Achilles fights for glory and also fights, in the Iliad, to avenge the death of his comrade Patroclus at the hands of the Trojan Hector.

Aeneas has his own instance of vengeance. His ally Pallas was killed by Turnus and Aeneas, in the closing lines of the poem, avenges Pallas' death by killing Turnus.

As we can see, Achilles and Aeneas do share some similarities, but Achilles' quest for glory is an individual one, whereas Aeneas is more of a "team player". His motivation is the establishment of a nation whose glory will reach its height hundreds of years after his own death.

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Compare the character of Aeneas to the character of Achilles.

Achilles is the focal point of Homer's Iliad, written in Greek in the latter half of the eighth century B.C.E. Seven centuries later, Virgil, writing in Latin, composed the Aeneid, whose composition ended in 19 B.C.E. when the poet died. Homer heavily influenced Virgil and Virgil's main character, Aeneas, has much in common with Achilles.

Both heroes have a mortal father (Peleus for Achilles; Anchises for Aeneas) and an immortal mother (Thetis for Achilles; Venus for Aeneas). We should note that Venus was a very important divinity for the city of Rome, of which Aeneas would become one of the founders.

Both heroes also experience the death of an ally at the hands of a key enemy. In Iliad 16, the Trojan Hector kills Patroclus, who is Achilles' best friend. In Aeneid 10, Turnus kills Pallas, who is an ally of Aeneas.

Both Achilles and Aeneas also avenge the deaths of this key ally. In Iliad 22, Achilles kills Hector; in Aeneid 12, in the closing lines of the epic, Aeneas kills Turnus.

We should also note that both Hector and Turnus were wearing military garb acquired from the person that they had killed. This military garb also affected the hero's mental state. Hector had taken Achilles' armor from Patroclus, who had borrowed the armor in an effort to trick the Trojans into thinking that Achilles had returned to the fighting. Turnus was wearing a belt that he had stripped from the body of Pallas. Aeneas saw this belt after he had Turnus down on the ground and Turnus was pleading for his life. The sight of this belt seems to have convinced Aeneas not to spare Turnus:

As soon as his eyes took in the trophy, a memory of cruel grief,

Aeneas, blazing with fury, and terrible in his anger, cried:

‘Shall you be snatched from my grasp, wearing the spoils

of one who was my own? Pallas it is, Pallas, who sacrifices you

with this stroke, and exacts retribution from your guilty blood.’ (A.S. Kline translation)

Finally, we should note that Aeneas' motivation in the epic is the establishment of a city that will eventually become Rome, the heart of the Roman empire. Achilles, in contrast, is motivated by personal glory. Aeneas has more nationalistic motivations.

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