How do Woodrow Wilson's fourteen points compare with the Treaty of Versailles?
Many of the elements of the Fourteen Points, including freedom of the seas, territorial rearrangements based on nationality in Eastern Europe, restoration of Alsace-Lorraine to France, and insistence on open agreements (i.e., no secret alliances) were incorporated into the Treaty of Versailles. But the general spirit of the Fourteen Points, which was that punitive action should not be taken against a defeated Germany, was not observed. Germany was forced to accept blame for the war in the Treaty, and faced major limitations on their armed forces that were not reciprocated by the Allies, particularly France. In addition, the Allies forced Germany to pay billions of dollars in reparations, which contributed to the economic catastrophe in Germany after the war.