Compare the view Lena, Antonia, and Tiny have about success in life. Do they achieve success according to their standards by the end of the book?

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All three find their own measure of "success," although each must undergo hardship before they can attain it. You are right to qualify the term "success" with "by their own standards," since success means different things for each. Lena values her independence and eventually becomes a successful dressmaker in San Francisco. Antonia values family, and although she is abandoned by her first lover and has an illegitimate child, she eventually marries a good Czech man and has a thriving farm. Tiny values adventure, and finds it (and her fortune) in the Klondike. She returns to San Francisco a rich woman, although, as Jim remarks, she "was like someone in whom the faculty of becoming interested is worn out.” Each woman makes her own choices in life, and their differing levels of success serve to point out how important the independence they enjoyed in Black Hawk was in shaping their characters.

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Yes, I think it is fair to say they do become successful in their own way. The beauty of the narrative lies in the fact that it presents the reader with different notions of female success that are presented as equal. Antonia is introduced as the one who works the hardest. She works in the fields, tanned, loading hay like a man. When Jim meets her later on in the narrative, it is surprising to find her as the one who has settled into the most conventional family life, but yet it is clear that it is not a matter of actually having done so because she was pregnant and jilted by her lover. Rather, Antonia actively made the choice to marry Anton. Unlike her parents's marriage, Antonia and Anton seem to have a marriage based on equality. I would suggest that this can be read as progress and success in domestic relations.Tiny and Lena seem destined for success. While they never marry their success, like Antonia, they are driven by the fact that they are able to make choices for themselves. Neither one of them is limited by the obligation or expectation to marry and have children. Tiny becomes rich in the gold rush and Lena owns her own business.

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