Animal Farm Questions and Answers
by George Orwell

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Compare how Mr. Jones and Napoleon ruled the animals in Animal Farm.

Mr. Jones ruled the farm in the same way for as long as he was in charge, essentially regarding the animals as machines to produce an income for him. Napoleon begins as one of the animals, which means he has to separate himself from the others in order to rule. His rule changes over the course of the book and is principally based on frightening the animals with violence and manipulating them with propaganda.

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The principal contrast between Mr. Jones's rule of the farm and Napoleon's is that the former is static and the latter dynamic. This is true both as a matter of presentation and as a matter of fact, though the reader is given to understand at the end of the book that Napoleon's rule will not change much more.

Mr. Jones's rule is presented only as a snapshot at the very beginning of the book, then in various scattered references. These suggest that Mr. Jones was not a particularly cruel master, and treated some of the animals, such as Mollie the Mare and Moses the Raven, as pets. Most, however, are simply machines for producing milk, eggs. and meat, or for laboring. Mr. Jones has no interest in the psychology of the animals. He probably does not imagine that they think at all.

Whereas Mr. Jones's rule was unchanging and mechanistic, not particularly cruel but essentially heartless, Napoleon's methods of control are always changing. Mr. Jones would have begun his career as a farmer thinking...

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