Compare and contrast the structure and function of tRNA and mRNA
(A Level) I know that tRna is involved in trancription and mRna translation (I think!)but struggling with the specifics of compare/contrast structure and function. My biochemistry book possibly has the answers but I think it might be too advanced for me!
Thanks in advance for any much needed help.
tRNA is transcription and transportation. mRNA is a messenger RNA it helps convert the codes for DNA. They both help to make proteins and peptide bonds.
Messenger RNA is a single stranded nucleic acid containing the sugar ribose and the bases adenine, guanine, cytosine and uracil. It is capable of copying the DNA inside the nucleus in a process called transcription and bringing that message to a ribosome in the cytoplasm. Once the mRNA attaches to a ribosome, a different type of RNA called transfer RNA will bring appropriate amino acids to the ribosome to construct a polypeptide chain. Transfer RNA are folded RNA molecules with an area called an anticodon. It can recognize a specific codon on the mRNA and bring the appropriate amino acid that the codon designates. For example, the first triplet or codon reads AUG. This represents START or the amino acid methionine. The transfer RNA will carry this amino acid to the ribosome and translation begins. Each triplet will be translated, adding another amino acid to the growing polypeptide chain in a process called elongation. Finally, when a stop codon is reached, the process of translation ends and the polypeptide detaches from the ribosome and folds into a functional protein.
mRNA are molecules with instructions in them. These are like messengers (as the name suggest) they get information from DNA to other parts of the cell. tRNA uses the messages carried by mRNA to transfer amino acid to ribosome. They are both needed. They do separate jobs but require each other to get one job done. I like to think of them as in manufacturing. The DNA uses a messenger service (mRNA) to send building plans to the parts of the cells. The building plans go from the mRNA to the tRNA (the builder). The tRNA uses the plans to transfer RNA amino acid to the ribosome in the correct way. tRNA not only transfers amino acids to the ribosome, but it also correctly matches the ribosome to the coded mRNA message.