Compare and contrast the rise of the Klan with the popularity of Marcus Garvey’s Back to Africa Movement.
Both the rise of the second movement of the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) and Marcus Garvey's Back to Africa movement occurred during the 1910's and 1920's, a time of great political conservatism in some ways and a time of racist backlash against the gains African-Americans had made as workers and soldiers during World War I. The Klan, originally founded in 1866 in Tennessee, was re-started in 1915. In the 1920s, the Klan grew drastically in membership, in part through a professional network of recruiters. The organization was anti-Catholic, nativist, anti-Semitic, and racist.
Marcus Garvey's Back to Africa Movement, called the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA), was similar to the rebirth of the Klan in that it resulted from the racism that ran rampant in the 1910s and 1920s. African-Americans were reeling from events such as the East St. Louis race riots in 1917, and Garvey, who had immigrated to the U.S. from Jamaica in 1916, promoted the Back to Africa movement (which had had earlier incarnations before the Civil War) as a way to salvage Black pride. Garvey urged African-Americans to return to Africa and even started cruise lines to help their journey. He was ultimately convicted of mail fraud charges and deported to Jamaica in 1927, never to return to the U.S. While his movement also arose from the racism of the 1920s, he claimed, obviously unlike the Klan, that his movement was intended to help African-Americans.