Compare/contrast Old Major’s speech and the first four paragraphs of The Communist Manifesto.

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In the first four paragraphs of the Communist Manifesto, Marx and Engels assert that the "history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles." They lay out a way of understanding human history and contemporary society based on changes in ownership of the means of production. By the end of the first four paragraphs, they have established that the Industrial Revolution has created two new classes, the bourgeoisie (property owners) and the proletariat (the working class) that are perpetually in conflict with each other.

Old Major's speech, which Orwell modeled after the Communist Manifesto and revolutionary Marxian theory in general, contains many of the same themes. Old Major observes that animals live "miserable, laborious, and short" lives and that they are not really free. The reason for this, according to Old Major, is man. Animals are exploited by man, who uses them to enrich themselves.

Much like Marx and Engels wrote in the introduction to the Communist Manifesto , Old...

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