There are quite a few major differences between the North and the South at the beginning of the Civil War. These differences were economic, political, and geographic in nature and were major factors in the coming war.
The South was largely an agricultural nation, focusing on growing and cultivating crops. The North, on the other hand, was much more industrialized, with factories to produce industrial technology and machinery.
In terms of politics, the South favored the states’ rights, which is why they held fast to the issue of slavery, believing the Federal government should not intervene in the States’ decision making in regards to their rights. The North was more comfortable with a powerful federal government and focused less on states’ rights.
Geographically, the South was a much larger area, encompassing about twice as much land as the North. This actually was detrimental to the South, because they had to have much longer supply lines and transportation to reach contested...
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