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Mitosis is cell division. The result of this process is two identical daughter cells, each with the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell. This process is used by unicellular organisms as a method of reproduction, and is used by multicellular organisms for growth and for repair of old worn out cells. The amount of chromosomes in the parent cell is called the diploid number which is represented by 2n. Before mitosis begins, the amount of chromosomes in that cell replicates. Therefore, each chromosome is copied. Then, the cell eventually divides into two daughter cells, but each gets a full set of chromosomes, but, only half of the cell's cytoplasm goes to each identical daughter cell. In meiosis, which is also a reduction division, this occurs in the organism's gonads, namely ovaries or testes. The end result is four haploid cells called gametes, which contain half the amount of chromosomes the original cell contained or the (n) amount. In meiosis, the ovary or teste cell contains the diploid or 2n amount of chromosomes. Just as in mitosis, these are replicated. The cell then proceeds to divide into two cells, each with the diploid amount of chromosomes. A second meiotic division occurs, resulting in four haploid cells, with half the chromosome amount. In females, one of these cells becomes an ova or egg, and the other three cells, or polar bodies, disintegrate. If it is a male, four sperm cells are the result. Remember, that at fertilization, if a sperm(n) plus and egg(n) unite to form a zygote, it will have 2(n) or diploid amount of chromosomes again.
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