I would say that DuBois and King are similar in terms of their philosophies. I would also say that Garvey and Malcolm X are similar to one another, but different from King and DuBois. Finally, I would put Washington in a class by himself.
Washington was the most accomodationist of these leaders because he did not want to push for rights. He wanted to wait until whites were ready to give rights to blacks.
DuBois and King did not want to wait for rights. They wanted to push for them right away, but they wanted to do so in an inclusive way. Both envisioned an integrated society where whites and blacks got a long.
Garvey and Malcolm were black nationalists. They did not want to join white America. Instead, they wanted to be separate and have blacks rely on themselves.
You could write several books on this topic. There have been plenty written on these thinkers. I think that the fundamental challenge in assessing these thinkers is determining how their backgrounds, experiences, and their social settings of the time all helped to shape their leadership styles and philosophies. Essentially, one is seeing if there were conditions that helped move thinkers towards a more integrationist or assimilationist viewpoint or if there was something more defiant in their narratives that helped to shape their thinking. I think in analyzing the different contingencies and contexts that cradled their thoughts, one could find where these specific thinkers would have converged and diverged in relationship to one another.