Compare and contrast Hamlet and Fortinbras in William Shakespeare’s Hamlet. How are the two figures alike? How are they different?
Even though Fortinbras is a character who remains unseen for most of the play and only enters after Hamlet's death in the very final scene, it is clear that Shakespeare draws many comparisons between these two characters, and clearly indicating the way in which Fortinbras acts as a foil for Hamlet in the same way that Laertes acts as another foil.
Let us first focus on the similarities between them. Both have lost fathers at the hand of somebody else, as Hamlet lost his father thanks to the murderous intentions of Claudius, and Fortinbras lost his father thanks to Hamlet's father, who killed him in war. Both therefore are in the position of being sole heirs or princes to a kingdom and also needing to revenge the death of their father.
However, this is where the similarities end, because, throughout the play, even though he only appears in the final scene, Fortinbras is shown to be a constant rebuke to Hamlet in the way that he actively pursues his revenge and conducts himself as a prince. Note how he is refered to in Act I scene 2:
Even though he is not King of Norway, he is actively doing everything he can to revenge his father and to gain back the land that was lost to Denmark. This is of course very different from Hamlet's prevarication and procrastination to the situation that he faces, where he seems to deliberately spend as long as possible trying to decide whether Claudius is guilty or not before finally moving on to do anything about it. In addition, note that when the final showdown happens, it is instigated by Claudius and Laertes rather than Hamlet himself. He appears to be a rather passive character in so many ways, especially when compared to Fortinbras, who is shown to be active throughout the play and committed to regaining his lost lands and revenging his father.
Fortinbras is in many ways a double or mirror image of Hamlet. He too is a prince, and he has the same name as his father, King Fortinbras, just as Hamlet is named for his father, King Hamlet. Both men have lost their fathers to the ambitions of other men: King Fortinbras has been killed by King Hamlet, and King Hamlet by Claudius. Both the younger Fortinbras and the younger Hamlet live in a kingdom in which their uncle rules. Both carry the weight of avenging their fathers's deaths.
In contrast, however, Fortinbras is a warrior to Hamlet's scholar. Hamlet is contemplative; Fortinbras is a man of action, hastening to move against Denmark militarily to avenge his father's death. Fortinbras is discontented unless he can engage in an enterprise that "hath a stomach in it," meaning one that requires courage. Horatio describes Fortinbras as "unimproved metal, hot and full," meaning he is young and untested, but on fire for war.
Unlike Hamlet, Fortinbras gets along with his uncle, who supports and underwrites his plan to invade Denmark. At the end of the play, Fortinbras shows his nobility of spirit in honoring Hamlet, his enemy, as a fellow warrior, though we may suspect he overstates the warrior qualities in his foe. All the same, it is generous of him to cast Hamlet in a positive light:
Let four captains
Bear Hamlet like a soldier to the stage;
For he was likely, had he been put on,
To have prov'd most royally; and for his passage
The soldiers' music and the rites of war
Speak loudly for him.