There were many important similarities between these civilizations. Perhaps the most important is that all of them were river valley, or aquatic, civilizations. This means that they depended upon rivers for irrigation and in some cases for transport. This is why they all arose in river valleys. This means that all of these civilizations were dependent on agriculture and, to some degree, trade. It is also important to note that all of these early civilizations appear to have been monarchies with leaders whose right to rule was supported by the religious authorities.
One important difference is seen in the connections between religion and politics. We know, for example, that political leaders in Egypt (pharaohs) were seen as divine. In Mesopotamia and China, by contrast, the rulers of the civilizations were not believed to be divine. In Mesopotamia, the cities were believed to be ruled by the gods through the priests and the kings, but the kings were not themselves divine. The same sort of idea appeared in China as well.