Compare and contrast classical drama with modern drama.  

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Greek drama evolved in the context of religious festival. This alone serves as a critical factor to be aware of: modern drama doesn't have that religious dynamic that was often built into the Greek context. You see this especially in the case of Greek tragedy, which often depicts the famous stories of Greek mythology. Structurally as well, Greek and modern drama are distinct from one another. Indeed, as historian D. Brendan Nagle points out,

In the earliest plays there was only one actor and the chorus. Aeschylus increased the number of actors to two and Sophocles to three, and thereafter this remained the standard number. (The Ancient World (5th ed), Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 199)

Thus, Greek drama tends to rely on its use of a chorus. Furthermore, the limited number of actors required the same actor to play multiple roles (while further limiting how many characters can appear on stage at any one time). Meanwhile, costuming and the use of masks were significant parts of Greek drama:

The masks were a necessity because the size of the theater made it difficult to see the faces of the actors, and because they also permitted the actors to switch roles quickly. (Nagle, 199)

This reliance on masks as a key element of costuming has no equivalent in modern theater.

Finally, Greek drama had a competitive context that modern drama lacks. Audiences would not attend the theater to watch a single production, as they usually do today: rather they would watch a series of productions, which would be judged against each another. While modern drama does have awards and honors which various productions might be in competition for, these awards are not as embedded directly within the theater-going experience as they were in the Greek context. They are entirely supplemental to the dramatic experience. (The same cannot be said in Ancient Greece.)

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Modern drama differs from classical drama in a variety of ways, but there are several main differences. Classical drama was typically relegated to three different groups—tragedies, comedies, and epic tales. What’s interesting about all of these is that, in spite of their different tones and themes, they all share very similar subject matter. They often deal with the interference of the Gods in human life and society.

Modern drama, however, is much more wide-ranging. There are political and social dramas, as well as absurdist dramas that don’t conform to any main idea. The variety in drama in modernity is much more widespread. Beyond that, the themes and conflicts involve human issues much more often. Humans cause their own strife and must resolve the issues in modern drama, while in classical dramas, the gods would typically create and/or help resolve the conflict.

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Both ancient Greek tragedy and Shakespearean tragedy, there is a tragic hero who possesses a tragic flaw, and this flaw brings about the hero's downfall.  Pride is probably the most common tragic flaw among these tragedies.  

Also, Greek tragedy tended to adhere to Aristotle's three unities: unity of action, of time, and of place.  Unity of action means that a play has only one major plot that it follows, and there are few—if any—subplots.  Unity of time refers to the fact that the action of the play takes place during a period of no more than twenty four hours (in something like "real time").  Unity of place means that the action of the play occurs in one single place and the stage will only represent that one place (and no others).

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The first issue here is that classical drama was not uniform. Greek tragedy and Old Comedy were radically different from most modern dramas, while Greek New Comedy, Roman Comedy, and some Roman tragedies were closer in style to modern drama. Of course, modern drama is also tremendously varied, with some modern playwrights borrowing elements such as the chorus or integration of singing and dancing into their staging.

Greek Tragedy and Old Comedy differ from much of modern drama by being written in verse. Both genres have a limit of three actors, who play multiple roles. Actors wear masks and stylized costumes (as they also do in Japanese Noh drama), and female roles are played by men as they are in Shakespeare and most Elizabethan drama. The chorus sings and dances (as do choruses in opera and musical theater). Classical drama was presented in amphitheaters, with a circular orchestra and the audience seated in rows built into a hillside surrounding the performance area, while recent (19th through 21st century) drama often uses proscenium stages. Ancient drama was performed outdoors using natural light while contemporary drama is performed indoors using artificial light.

Contra another answerer, while ancient tragedy had noble protagonists, Old and New Comedy and Roman Comedy had protagonists from all classes, including poor farmers, shopkeepers, soldiers, and slaves as well as wealthier protagonists. The "mixed" genre combining rustic comedy with elevated tragedy, though, was mainly an early modern invention, although some of Euripides' plays anticipate this.

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Numerous comparisons and contrasts exist between classical and modern drama.  I'll deal with a small part of your question.

One of the most significant contrasts between classical drama and modern is the difference in the protagonists.  Classical tragedy, for instance, involves royalty, the elite.  The idea was that for a character to have a great and far-reaching influence over society he/she had to be in a position of great power and authority.

In contrast, modern drama often uses common people as protagonists.  John Synge, for instance, uses Irish peasants in his tragedy, Riders to the Sea, even though the play imitates Greek tragedy.  In modern drama, tragedy can be indicative of a society, without totally involving and disrupting that society.   

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