Compare and Contrast Chinese and Japanese responses to European dominance.
Both the Chinese and the Japanese were initially averse to trade with European nations. The Chinese limited trade to one port and forced trading nations to pay tribute to them. The Japanese in the 16th century limited trade to trade with a few Dutch merchants. The Chinese considered themselves superior to the Europeans; the Japanese feared them.
Ultimately both countries had to concede trade with Euro-American culture because of the military power of the westerners. China was forced to open up more ports and allow Christian missionaries to set up churches. Spheres of influence - geographical areas of dominance - for each major Western power was set up in China and foreigners were allowed to live freely in China. Both countries made political changes in response to foreign influence. A government with anti-foreign sentiment was set up in China to expel the foreigners in what is called the boxer rebellion: it failed. Japan also underwent political changes with the Tokugawa Shogunate being replaced by a new government in what was called the Meiji Restoration. China tried to fight European acculturation with the Boxer rebellion, however, Japan allowed and even encouraged it with the goal of one day dominating the Euro-American influence both within its borders and globally. Japanese students were sent abroad and western advisers came to Japan in a sort of cultural exchange. Japan modernized and developed one of the worlds most competitive educational systems with the result that Japan's automobile and technology industries took center-stage in the world.