Both states were unified by a powerful monarchy. In the case of Italy, it was Sardinia, in Germany's case, Prussia. Both were unified by the pragmatic, often ruthless actions of statist leaders, Cavour in Italy and of course Bismarck in Germany. Both were forged in war. Germany fought three wars, against Denmark, Austria, and France to achieve unity, while Italy fought against France, Austria, and finally, under Garibaldi, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. With these similarities aside, however, Germany under Bismarck's leadership was much more effective in forging a unified, modern state than was Italy, which, while not quite a mere "geographic expression," to use Metternich's words, still remained poor and provincial throughout the rest of the nineteenth century.