The creation of the US Constitution in Philadelphia in 1787 was controversial because the Founding Fathers exceeded their authority by scrapping the old Articles of Confederation. They had concluded that the Articles of Confederation were too flawed, so they they replaced it entirely. After completing their work, the Founding Fathers sent it to the states for ratification: nine of the thirteen states had to ratify the Constitution for it to become valid.
Federalists and Anti-Federalists factions emerged, and they engaged in a fierce debate over the Constitution. The Federalists urged the states to ratify the document and the Anti-Federalists were opposed to it. Newspapers reported on the controversy, and they were read by Americans everywhere. Leading Federalists published The Federalist to convince skeptics. The Federalist was a series of 85 essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay. They successfully argued that the strong new government would not trample on the people's rights. Finally, the anti-Federalists agreed after the "Bill of Rights" was added to the Constitution.
After the ninth state, New Hampshire, ratified the Constitution, it went into effect in 1788.