Compare and contrast Chinese and Japanese responses to European dominance. 

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European dominance came as a result of the Industrial Revolution and the continent's economic and military might, or at least of its major powers, in the mid-late 1800s.

The establishment of European and namely British dominance over China started with the Opium Wars. The British pushed opium onto the Chinese market against the will of the Chinese rulers. When the Chinese sought to stamp out the opium trade, first through diplomatic means and then by arresting dealers and burning the opium, the British launched a naval attack on Chinese port cities. The resulting Opium Wars ended with a humiliating acceptance by China of an unequal treaty called the Treaty of Nanjing (1842). The treaty established the principle of extraterritoriality, which gave British free reign in several of China's port cities; it also forced the Chinese to limit tariffs, free opium smugglers, and pay indemnities to the British. China became an economic colony of Great Britain and went through a prolonged, violent,...

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