Comment on the significance of the passage below from Leibniz’s Monadology, and discuss its as prelapsarian or postlapsarian, as well as in relation to other themes. "69. Thus there is nothing fallow, nothing sterile, nothing dead in the universe, no chaos, no confusion save in appearance, somewhat as it might appear to be in a pond at a distance, in which one would see a confused movement and, as it were, a swarming of fish in the pond, without separately distinguishing the fish themselves. (Theod. Pref. [E. 475 b; 477 b; G. vi. 40, 44])"

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz’s passage could be considered prelapsarian and postlapsarian because it identifies the kind of order in the Garden of Eden and in life after the Fall. The excerpt also relates to accident and chance because Leibniz appears to argue that everything in the universe has a rational intention and order.

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This passage from Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz’s short philosophical text Monadology connects to prelapsarian and postlapsarian perspectives on life and being. Leibniz’s insistence that there is “no chaos” and “no confusion” links to the harmony of life before the Fall. Prior to Eve’s bite of the forbidden fruit, life in Eden was ordered. There was no strife or difficulty. Everything existed in unison.

Of course, once Eve transgressed the tree of knowledge, chaos came about. John Milton, who wrote many poems and pamphlets on religion during the seventeenth century, reinforces the distinction between postlapsarian and prelapsarian life in Areopagitica. Milton writes,

Truth indeed came once into the world with her divine Master, and was a perfect shape most glorious to look on.

Following the Fall, that truth was, in Milton's words, “scattered.” Leibniz seems to think otherwise. He contends that there continues to be rhyme and reason in the world even after the Fall.

The intention that Leibniz spots in the postlapsarian world relates to other keywords listed in the question, including accident and chance. Based off of the passage, it’s hard to argue that Leibniz places much credence in accident. Things don’t come about by chance. There is, according to Leibniz, a purposeful design behind everything in the universe.

Leibniz allows for the fact that, sometimes, things might come across as bewildering, but that’s just “appearance.” If one takes the time to investigate and think it over, they should eventually discover some kind of order or logic.

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