What is the significance of Meursault not caring for important events like his mother's death in "The Stranger"? Why does he notice small details like the scabs on the dog?

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This punctuates his complete disregard for proper behavior and for the thoughts and feelings of others.  It also focuses our attention on Meursault's shocking apathy.  He doesn't care for anything, including the death of his own mother. 

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This aspect of Meursualt's personality is one of the  main themes in the story. The absurdity of his emotional indifference to serious events cause Meursault to  reflect on the meaninglessness of a person's life in society. Meursault refuses to consider anything such as fate or God as a reason for man's actions and existence. He can only use logic. Whether it is his mother's death, Marie's need to prove his love for her, or even his killing a man, nothing actually penetrates his emotional core. Yet, he pays attention to details, such as the scabs on the dog, because they are no threat to his emotional isolation.

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