What is the classification of chemical substances that kill microorganisms or block their proliferation?

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pohnpei397 eNotes educator| Certified Educator

"Antibiotics" are the class of substances that kill microorganisms or prevents them from spreading.

The first antibiotic to be used in a formal medical setting was penicillin, first discovered in 1928.

Since the discovery of penicillin, many other classes of antibiotics have been discovered.  These classes all have different chemical structures and are generally derived from different kinds of bacteria.

Antibiotics are not effective against viruses such as those that cause colds and flu.

Because antibiotics are so widely used, there has come to be a great deal of concern about microorganisms that are becoming resistant to antibiotics (and so are unable to be cured using existing antibiotics).

giorgiana1976 | Student

Antibiotics, chemotherapy and sulfonamides are anti microbial drugs.Microbes can be killed by various methods:
- Physical
- Chemical
- Biological

Chemical Methods:
There are many chemicals substances that kill or block the multiplication of micro organisms. They are divided into:
selective agents:
- Antibiotics
- Chemotherapy
non-selective agents:
- Antiseptic
- Disinfectants Antibiotics are natural substances produced by microorganisms to kill or inhibit the growth of other microorganisms.Few antibiotics are completely safe for macroorganisms. Chemotherapy drugs are most effective in treating infectious diseases. efficacy of the product make it useful in treating infectious diseases by its qualities:
-absorption rate 
- the rate of elimination 
- ability to penetrate the infected area

parama9000 | Student

They are generally known as antibiotics.

However, in general there are three types of methods regarding this topic:  Chemical, Biological and Physical.

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