There were many effects of the Civil War. Let us look at two of the most important.
First, the Civil War ended slavery. This was, obviously, of utmost importance to people who had been enslaved. By ending slavery, the war helped to create a more just United States. The 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the Constitution, passed right after the Civil War, eventually led to legal equality for African Americans.
Second, the Civil War helped to "open" the West. Laws passed by Congress during the Civil War (with no Southern states to oppose them) allowed homesteaders to get free land and helped cause the transcontinental railroads to be built. These actions led to the settlement of the West.
These are two of the many important effects of the Civil War.
Many things caused the Civil War. Not simply the election of Lincoln, but many things that ranged from economical problems to even discrimination of race. Other problems in short, consisted of slavery, the abolitionist (people who wanted to stop slavery) movement, difference in economy, and the western expansion.
1. Slavery is ended in the U.S.
2. While slavery ended, sharecropping became very popular. This was a way to continue to have cheap (slave) labor and for whites to profit without calling it slavery.
3. Northern Carpetbaggers coming in to rebuild the south.
4. Southern Poverty
5. The KKK and other groups still oppressing the blacks..
6. The largest loss of US life in war.