In referring to the culture of origin, I am unsure whether you are referencing the context in which this novel was published (Colombia 1981) or the fictional setting of the novel (a Colombian village). I can tell you that by the time Gabriel Garcia Marquez published this novel, he was a well-known and beloved author who had put Latin American literature "on the map" internationally. He would go on to win the Nobel Prize only one year after publishing this particular work.
Concerning how literature plays a role in the text, you could look at the fact that storytelling is a central theme of the novel. The journalist who is piecing together the facts of this story is getting witness testimonials and realizing that human memory is highly fallible. The reports contradict one another and point to the fact that written accounts of human experience often obscure the way that reality is perceived by human beings. The official histories that we rely on to understand the past ignore the many versions of the truth that exist for the people who experience those events.