Choose one geographical area in which civilization first developed (Mesopotamia and Egypt). Why do you think that a complex society emerged in that particular geographic area? Then list and explain three features that make them a “civilization.” Support your opinions with specific examples. Make sure to use proper APA format for all citations provided and include a reference list for the citations you use.

A complex society emerged in Mesopotamia mainly because of the existence of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. These rivers provided fertile soil and fresh water for irrigation that allowed people to stay in one place and grow food. This led to population growth and developments that made Mesopotamia known as “the cradle of civilization,” like cities, religion, and communication systems.

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One of the main reasons why a complex society emerged in Mesopotamia was the existence of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. These two rivers made the surrounding land fertile and ideal for growing food, and they provided fresh water to irrigate crops. The rivers also provided food sources like fish and eventually served as a transportation route to facilitate trade. All of these factors allowed people to stay in one place and still see population growth, instead of traveling around and following food sources. The ability to stay put led to the development of settlements that grew into cities.

Now Mesopotamia is often called the “cradle of civilization” for many reasons, but its cities, religion, and communication system are all key reasons. Mesopotamia had several advanced cities, like Eridu and Akkad. Lots of Mesopotamian cities had temples in them called ziggurats, because religion was very important to people in this region. People from Mesopotamia are also famous for their writing system. The Sumerians, people of one of the many notable Mesopotamian civilizations called Sumer, invented a writing system called cuneiform. This system of pressing markings into clay tablets was used to communicate and record information. All of these elements made Mesopotamia quite advanced for its time, and it would not have been able to be this way if it was not for the many advantages that the Tigris and Euphrates provided.

When conducting your research on Mesopotamia or Egypt and citing your sources in APA, you should format your sources as follows:

Author Last Name, First initial. (Year, Month Date Published). Title of web page. Name of Website. URL

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