Very early in the play the chief god, Zeus, is spoken of by a priest of Zeus. As the leader of the gods, Zeus had a hand in events that occurred on earth and directed human destiny. He was the god of law and social order.
In the same speech, the priest of Zeus invokes the goddess Athena. She was the goddess of wisdom and war and was said to be Zeus's favorite child. Even though a city might have another god as patron, rulers would often seek wisdom from Athena.
Later, the Chorus calls on Athena's "earth-protecting sister, Artemis." She was the twin sister of Apollo. Known as the goddess of the hunt, Artemis also was the protector of women and children.
Now, consider what is going on in Thebes when the priest and the chorus talk to and about these gods. Why do you think it is appropriate for them to consult these gods in particular?
Athene - the immortal daughter of Zues
Zeus - chief God
Artemis - Athene's sister
can be found in the first few pages of the book.