What characterizes the second half of the 19th C., an age of faith in positive consequences, & close observation of natural & human realms.

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Victorian art characterized the art of the second half of the 19th Century.  This was the age of faith in positive consequences, also called the "positive age." This age of faith in positive consequences regarding...

...what can be achieved through the close observation of the natural and human realms.

This art flourished under the reign of Queen Victoria, one of the oldest ruling monarchs in England's history—she ruled for sixty-four years, from 1837-1901. In light of the industrial revolution came the idea that science could "solve all human problems" (not such a new concept), but human progress had been growing as England had become less God-centered and more human-centered. Victorian art was...

...shown in the full range of artistic developments, from the development of photography to the application of new technologies in architecture.

Painters of this era were interested in returning to the style of painted that existed before Raphael. This movement, by painters such as Dante Rossetti and William Holman Hunt (who "formed the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood), Arthur Hughes and John William Waterhouse, wanted to make a statement against industrialization, and so turned to nature for inspiration. (Waterhouse is known by many as the painter of the famous "The Lady of Shalott.")

The realism of these paintings is amazing—looking almost like photographs—utilizing more colors and more detailed painting.