The passage of the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920 guaranteed all women the right to vote, but women did not receive completely equal status for many years. Alabama, like most Deep South states, lagged behind, and in Maycomb, women could still not serve on juries in the 1930s. Jim Crow laws prevented Negroes from equal status as well. Even by 1940, only 3% of eligible Negro voters were registered, mostly due to restricted laws such as poll taxes, which many poor people--white and black--could not afford to pay. Women received full equality to serve on juries only after the case of Fay v. New York in 1947, when the United States Supreme Court ruled that women deserved full equality status with men when picking juries.