The animals are able to drive off Jones and his men fairly easily, and after they do so, their first action is to destroy all the instruments of oppression they can find, such as dog chains, whips, and the knives used to castrate the pigs. They sang "The Beasts of England" over and over again in celebration, and when they awakened the next day, they went to the farmhouse, which they decided should be made into a museum. Then they take a crucial step. The pigs, having taught themselves to read and write, paint seven commandments on the wall of the barn:
- Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy.
- Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend.
- No animal shall wear clothes.
- No animal shall sleep in a bed.
- No animal shall drink alcohol.
- No animal shall kill any other animal.
- All animals are equal.
These will be the guiding principles of the newly christened Animal Farm (changed from "Manor Farm"). At the end of the chapter, as they begin the hay harvest, the pigs stop to milk the cows. Napoleon stays behind to watch the milk, and, ominously, when the animals come back from the hayfield, they see that the milk is missing. This is the first evidence we have that the pigs will not remain true to the revolution.