The first paragraph in the story of A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens seeks to bring out the nature of similarity and contrast that existed between England and France at that period, and presently when the author was working on the novel. The first paragraph paints an image of chaos due to the opposite extremes that existed among the different localities and the people. This would further form the basis of the story, showing the differences between the wealthy and the peasants. The wealthy enjoyed a period of abundance while the poor suffered a period of deprivation and poor living conditions. In France the clergy was responsible for the inhumane practices against the masses, while in England the state of security was at its lowest, with the authorities unable to rise up to the challenge. The first paragraph thus brings the issue of juxtaposition of the two countries to the fore, and forms the basis of events that followed in the story.
The sense of turmoil in the two countries is best captured by the opening line, "It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness."
This first paragraph of Dickens is a beautiful example of paradoxes, paradoxes to which each reader can relate. For, no historical period is without its benefits and its deficiencies. Also, Dickens sets up parallels between the time period of the novel,the 1780s, and his own time period, the 1850s.
In England, there were social changes being made by the Industrial Revolution as well as from influences across the English Channel in France with such men as Robespierre and Danton. Dickens wished to portray the danger of radical thinking as this thinking wrought death and destruction. He feared that "the age of incredulity" might effect even more destruction than those caught in "the age of foolishness." On the other hand, Dickens perceived that children and adults both suffered under cruel working conditions; people were suspicious of one another, and other inhumane acts were committed in England as well as in France. So, some social changes were necessary.
This theme of duality presented in the exposition of "A Tale of Two Cities" is prevalent throughout the entire novel as characters have their "doubles" and the two cities reflect each other in several social dilemmas and possible consequences.