What are some examples of a change in a character's perspective due to a conflict (probably the court case) in To Kill A Mockingbird?

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Jem is deeply traumatized by the patently unfair conviction of Tom Robinson. Despite what his father had told him, he always held out the faint hope of an acquittal. As well as boyish naivety, this was down to his unwavering conviction that the people of Maycomb, for all their faults, were the best in the world. Now he knows differently, and the cold, hard truth is just too much for him to bear.

Jem had to grow up at some point, but this is a particularly brutal transition to manhood. If one good thing has come out of Jem's loss of innocence, it's a greater maturity, a more acute awareness of the harsh realties of the world, with all its racism, prejudice, and willful injustice. Tom Robinson's conviction also makes Jem determined to follow in the gigantic footsteps of Atticus and become a crusading lawyer, fighting for justice.

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The person that, undoubtedly, changes the most is Jem. Even before the trial, there are some inklings of maturity. However, the trial definitely changes Jem and is his outlook concerning life.

When the verdict of guilty is placed on Tom Robinson, Jem does not take it well. He knows at the core of his heart that Tom is innocent, which means he also knows that Maycomb is racist. The text records how hard Jem took this news. 

His face was streaked with angry tears as we make our way through the cheerful crowd. “It aint’ right," he muttered all the way to the corner of the square where we found Atticus waiting... “It ain’t right, Atticus,” said Jem. No son, it’s not right.” We walked home.

Later Jem's maturity is made even more apparent. When Bob Ewell attacked the children. Jem protected Scout with little worry for himself. He really embodied sacrifice and courage, the very qualities that Atticus possessed. 

Another character that changes significantly is Scout. At the end of the story, in some ways, she is wiser than Atticus. She realizes that Boo Radley was also a mockingbird, a point that Atticus had a difficult time seeing. Scout probably came to this conclusion by observing how society worked in Maycomb, especially at the trial of Tom Robinson. 

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