I wonder if your question is supposed to ask either A) which of the following did not challenge that idea or B) which of the following first challenged that idea. The reason I say this is that three of the answers that you give are events that challenged this idea.
The first of these was Magna Carta in 1215. This set some limits on what the king of England could do and guaranteed certain rights to the members of the aristocracy. So if you are asking which was the first, it was Magna Carta.
The Bill of Rights usually refers to the Bill of Rights attached to the US Constitution. This did not challenge the divine right of kings because it limited the power of an elected government, not of a king.