In Candide, describe one instance in which Voltaire is criticizing the government and one in which he is criticizing the church of the 18th century.

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A great example of Voltaire's satirizing of religion comes when Candide is in Holland, begging for food from a Protestant minister. Instead of showing Christian charity towards Candide and saving him from starvation, the minister inquires whether he believes that the pope is the Anti-Christ, a common position among Calvinists at the time. When Candide doesn't answer in the affirmative, the minister refuses him any assistance. What Voltaire is attacking here is the tendency of too many religious people to be more concerned with doctrinal orthodoxy that the core Christian virtues of faith, hope, and charity.

An example of Voltaire's critique of government, especially absolutist monarchical government, comes when Candide dines with six kings. Each monarch regales him with tales of woe of how they've lost their kingdoms and how much blood and treasure it cost them. Yet none of these kings seems to have learned his lesson. They still cling to the old ideals of monarchical government that got them into this mess in the first place and that has brought so much impoverishment and suffering to their own people.

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There are several instances in which Voltaire criticizes religion. For example, in Chapter 14, the character Cacambo, Candide's footman in Paraguay, is described as having been a "singing boy, sexton, sailor, monk, peddler, soldier, and lackey" (page 35). The fact that Cacambo has tried and given up being a monk implies that religion is just like a pair of clothes that one tries on and takes off without much thought. In addition, in El Dorado, Cacambo is very surprised that there are no monks. He says, "What...have you no monks among you to dispute, to govern, to intrigue, and to burn people who are not of the same opinion with themselves?” (page 49). Cacambo suggests that monks mainly practice cruelty and intolerance rather than kindness, and the man who answers him says that they would be foolish to have monks in El Dorado, since they all get along. Again, the idea is that monks are only necessary to create discord.

There are also several instances of Voltaire satirizing government. For example, in Chapter 3, the troops representing the King of the Bulgarians fights the troops of the King of the Abares. The battle that the kings assemble is greeted with great fanfare, including "trumpets, fifes, hautboys, drums, and cannon [that] made such harmony as never was heard in Hell itself" (page 6). Then, as cannons are discharged, 6,000 soldiers immediately perish on both sides. Then,  bayonets causes the death of about 30,000 more men, as the kings have people recite hymns in their camps. The kings appear to be merciless and unconcerned about the bloodshed that they are causing among their own people and among the other side. 

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