In North America during the twentieth century, one notable fashion styles that are clearly associated with oppositional identity are the flapper style of the 1920s. Flappers were women, usually young, who cut their hair short, donned short dresses or skirts—usually of light-weight, even sheer fabrics—and abandoned restrictive undergarments, such as corsets. This change, which began after World War I, is associated with the larger social liberties of the so-called 1920s, usually referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties. The male fashion counterparts of female attire included softly draped garments, as opposed to earlier form-fitting, tailored ones, including baggy pants and fur coats, often made of raccoon fur. As the Jazz Age coincided with the nationwide banning of alcohol sales under the 18th Amendment, passed in 1920, it is often associated with illegal manufacture of alcohol, or “bootlegging,” and consumption in clandestine “speakeasy” bars.
Beginning in the mid-1960s, hippie culture and related clothing styles are associated with the so-called counter culture, which explicitly rejected the conservatism of the 1950s. In many regards, hippie culture was an outgrowth of 1950s beatnik culture. Hippie style included unisex clothing, such as bell-bottom jeans, puffy shirts, and leather vests or jackets. Many hippies rejected conventional lifestyles, including both school and jobs. Communal living, rock music, and consumption of drugs such as marijuana and hallucinogens including LSD are also associated with this movement. As the US became increasingly entrenched in the war in Vietnam, the clothing style ironically included military uniform items and is closely associated with opposition to the war and the military draft.