Can you give some advice on how best to quote from and cite a source in an essay? When should quotes be inserted and how?
Quotations are used in essays to either prove or illustrate your argument. Therefore, the quote you use should always be relevant and related to your argument. In addition, since your quote is always used to prove your argument, one thing you want to make sure to do is always surround your quote with your own words. One common mistake students make is writing in such a way that their quotes stand alone as sentences all by themselves. Instead, we want our quotes to be fully integrated into our own sentences. Below is an example of a fully integrated quote:
- Puck rightly characterizes the foolishness of the Athenians' behavior and the foolishness of love in his lines, "Shall we their fond pageant see? / Lord, what fools these mortals be!" (III.ii.115-116).
In contrast, here is an example a quote that has not been integrated:
- "Lord, what fools these mortals be!" Puck rightly characterizes the foolishness of the Athenians' behavior.
In the first example it is obvious that the writer is using the quote to prove his/her own point, while in the second example, the quote is just randomly sitting there in the essay.
When we are citing long passages, usually to explain a history, a study, or another author's perspective, we have a second option beyond a direct quote and that option is a paraphrase. A paraphrase is a summary of another author's words but put into your own words. When paraphrasing, you have to be very careful about using your own words, otherwise, you will plagiarize the other author.
Both direct quotes and paraphrases must be cited correctly, and how to cite the source actually depends on the referencing style you are required to use. The referencing style actually depends on your course of study. Many high school students are typically not required to use anything other than MLA. College students, on the other hand, will be required to use the referencing style used by their department. Typically, humanities students, including students in English and Literature, are typically required to use MLA; social science students, especially psychology students, use APA; history, theology, and business students use either Chicago or Turabian; and finally, science students use either one form or the other of CSE. Consult your course handbook, syllabus, or your instructor if you are unsure of what referencing style to use.
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