Relate this book to the five themes of geography, excluding perceptual region and absolute location?
Your questions seems very specific to the lessons that your teacher is covering with this novel. I'm not sure what the "five themes" of geography are that you refer to.
However, let me discuss the importance of geography to this story. Today, there is a division between north and south in the United States. Customs and history vary, as do beliefs shared by the people. This book revolves around the problems in the south during the mid part of the 20th century, particularly during the time of the civil rights' movement. Poverty played a role in how individuals reacted to each other - during difficult times, victims often look to find a villian, a scapegoat who can be blamed. The African-American community, already villified by historical subjugation, was an easy target for a scapegoat.
So, as the movement for equal rights swept through the country, the south was holding tight to historical prejudices, causing a more violent reaction to these social changes. Moody struggles through these conflicts as she grows up, overcoming them, and then becoming determined to challenge the prejudice as an adult.