Can you explain why international relations with germany changed in the years 1923-29?

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mscw | High School Teacher | (Level 2) Assistant Educator

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Firstly, it is important to remember that Germany had been punished severely by the victorious "Entente" nations in the Treaty of Versailles (1919).  Germany lost territory in the east and the west, and was required to repay many millions of Marks in reparationfor the destruction and loss that was caused by the war.

Germany's economy declined rapidly, and by 1923 hyperinflation meant that citizens, businesses and government lost savings, and the economy went into recession. French troops entered the Ruhr region in 1923 to claim unpaid reparations, which led to workers' strikes and unrest. 

In general, Britain and the USA were keen to relax the harsh punishments from Versailles, in order to ease the financial pressure on Germany. France, which had suffered the worst losses at the hands of the Germans, was at first strongly against offering assistance, but did work on some treaties and agreements during this time to improve relations with Germany.

The Dawes Plan(see link below), which was a combination of financial aid and modified reparation payments, was negotiated between Germany and the USA in 1924. Gustav Stresemann (Germany) worked with banker, Charles Dawe (USA) on the plan. This is the first example of the allied nations offering some respite to Germany from its heavy burden of reparations.

In 1925, the Pact of Locarno was negotiated between Britain, France and Italy, and confirmed the German-Belgian and German-French borders. This demonstrated all parties' willingness to be open in their dealings and ensured that Germany would not suffer further losses of territory.

In 1926, the League of Nations allowed Germany to become a member, thus confirming that Germany could once again become one of the great European nations. And, in 1928, Germany, along with fifty other nations, signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact, which declared war illegal, and demonstrated Germany's desire to be seen as a responsible  world citizien.

Finally, Germany's political scene became more stable in the years 1923-1929. With an improving economy, Germany was able to meet its fellow European nations on a more equal footing. Civil satisfaction in Germany improved during this time, because there was stability of both goverment and economy.

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