Can someone please explain how to do #28?

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As it states, "odds" is the ratio that compares the number of favorable outcomes to the number of unfavorable outcomes.  Or:Odds =     Number of favorable outcomes  

             Number of unfavorable outcomes

As opposed to probability:

Probability =     Number of favorable outcomes   ...

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As it states, "odds" is the ratio that compares the number of favorable outcomes to the number of unfavorable outcomes.  Or:

Odds =     Number of favorable outcomes  

             Number of unfavorable outcomes

As opposed to probability:

Probability =     Number of favorable outcomes     

                          Number of total outcomes

Given that, many times, especially here, the number of total outcomes = number of favorable outcomes + number of unfavorable outcomes, then the number of unfavorable outcomes = the total number of outcomes - the number of favorable outcomes.  So, that would give us:

Odds =                     Number of favorable outcomes                         

             Total number of outcomes - Number of favorable outcomes

For this problem, on a 6 sided die, there is only one "6".  So, there is only one favorable outcome, the single "6" out of 6 total outcomes.  So, plugging that into the equation:

Odds =  1/(6-1) = 1/5

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