Concerning essay ideas for Shakespeare's Macbeth, most moral and justice issues are talked about often, and center on Macbeth and Lady Macbeth. One that isn't often discussed, and is ambiguous (which makes for a good essay) is the question of Macduff's duty, or the shirking of it, when he leaves his family alone and exposed in Scotland.
Macduff goes to England to join forces with Malcolm against Macbeth. This is probably something his sense of justice requires him to do, and it certainly is necessary for the good of Scotland.
But when he does so, he leaves his family alone and unprotected.
Research questions might be:
- Is Macduff's leaving his family alone and exposed in Scotland immoral?
- Is Lady Macduff's condemnation of her husband as a traitor figuratively true (a traitor to his family)?
- Is Lady Macduff's reaction understandable, but misguided? Or does her reaction demonstrate accurate judgment?
Any way, that's one idea for you.