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There are many scientists who believe that they are directed by God. I don’t think that there is an inherent contradiction, unless you are studying evolution. As long as a scientist can be open-minded and neutral and not make assumptions, religion does not need to interfere.
The claims of science can be tested, confirmed, and/or falsified. It is much more difficult to say the same about the claims of faith and especially of religious doctrine. If the latter claims were testable and could be either confirmed or falsified, there would, presumably, not be so many fundamentally conflicting claims about religious "truth." The results of science don't vary much (if at all) from one place to another, one culture to another, or one era to another. This is clearly not the case with the claims of religion.
Of course it can. Without imagination, we would have no scientific theories. Scientists use their imagination to come up with hypothesis and theories about the way the world works. Sometimes these ideas are proved correct and sometimes they are proved wrong, but imagination still drives scientific progress.
I also think science can be very compatible with religion. Just because I know that my body is made up of specific bones and cells doesn't mean I can't believe God created it. Personally, I find that a scientific knowledge increases my religious faith. I cannot believe that all the complexities of the world which science has shown occurred at random and by mere chance.
There is no question in my mind, too, that there exists a false dichotomy between science and religion. Many scientists are people of faith, and I see no reason for any conflict between the two. One is a matter of evidence and the other is a matter of belief. The fact that we are likely to have begun as some bacteria in the sea says nothing whatsoever about whether or not there is a divine being.
Insofar as imagination is concerned, I do not see how there could be any science at all without imagination. It may be a divine spark in all of us, but it is often the driving force behind discovery and invention. Science begins with ideas, and what are ideas but what we imagine?
My old minister was also a man of science. When he explained how God created the world in seven days, he explained that days were stages, and that man evolved over millions of years--one "day." Sadly, too many of today's modern preachers won't accept anything but the literal words of the Bible, and refuse to distinguish between scientific fact and their flawed translation of the Good Book.
This is a great question. Let me start off with some social theory. According to sociologists of knowledge, all cultures have distinct categories of thought. This is simply to say that knowledge is culturally conditioned. So, what is true in one culture is not necessarily true in another. We all have different categories of thought.
In the West, particularly places like America, people have created a false binary. You need either to side with reason/science or religion/faith. They make it seem that these are in tension and conflict. However, this is only a western point of view. Think of places like the Middle East and India. They are all theists, and they all have a worldview where the divine exists and they still conduct experiments and practice science.
What I am trying to say is that there is no inherent conflict between science, religion, faith, and imagination. They can co-exist peacefully. At times this might present a challenge, but there are not opposed to one another.
All great answers so far! I agree that it is possible to be religious and scientifically minded, but it hard to be fundamentally religious and scientifically minded. Science relates to religion in a way that can be accidentally destructive. The Bible and Koran etc make claims about the universe's creation and mankind origins, and science has proved these claims to be wrong. This leads to great tension among the fundamentalists and scientists. There are millions of people who refuse to accept contradictions to their religious texts, despite incontrovertible evidence. A classic example would be Christians who believe the Earth is approx 6000 years old. Science can prove the Earth is 4,700,000,000 years old. (and this proof is not a single proof; there are dozens of different, independent techniques for proving an old Earth and all these methods agree on the age of our planet) So we have a clash of very diverse views and this leads to tension.
Perhaps teachers should take some of the blame here, Science education has failed to relate to peoples' imagination. Science requires a large amount of intellectual imagination to visualise beautiful, complex, abstract mechanisms and we have clearly failed to provide a large percentage of society with a scientific imagination.
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